ANALISIS VISUAL MASJID BAITURRAHMAH (DERMAYU)DESA DERMAYU KECAMATAN SINDANG KABUPATEN INDRAMAYU

Triana, Yogi Ade (2007) ANALISIS VISUAL MASJID BAITURRAHMAH (DERMAYU)DESA DERMAYU KECAMATAN SINDANG KABUPATEN INDRAMAYU. S1 thesis, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

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Abstract

Bentuk masjid kuno di Pulau Jawa (abad ke 15-16) merupakan abad transisi dari arsitektur Jawa-Hindu ke arsitektur Jawa-Islam sehingga diperoleh bentuk masjid yang beragam. Kabupaten Indramayu merupakan daerah pesisir Pulau Jawa yang memiliki keterkaitan dalam penyebaran agama Islam di Jawa Barat. Hal tersebut ditandai dengan adanya bangunan masjid kuno di daerah Indramayu yang memiliki umur lebih dari seratus tahun. Masjid ini diberi nama Masjid Baiturrahmah, dulunya sebelum diberi nama Masjid Baiturrahmah lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Masjid Dermayu yang diambil dari nama daerah masjid berada. Kini masjid tersebut masih tetap berdiri walau sudah mengalami pemugaran, bagian-bagian masjid seperti mustaka, soko guru, mahkota tiang segidelapan, dan lain-lain masih ada. Rumusan masalah: Bagaimana sejarah, bentuk, struktur, dan ragam hias pada Masjid Baiturrahmah Indramayu. Metode penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif digunakan dalam penelitian ini, serta dengan teknik pengumpulan data seperti studi pustaka, dokumentasi, observasi, dan wawancara. Penelitian ini menggunakan teori yang dikemukakan oleh Pijper (1984, hlm. 15) mengenai ciri-ciri masjid di Pulau Jawa, dan teori yang dikemukakan oleh Dasuki (1977, hlm. 41-42) mengenai masjid kuno di Jawa pada masa transisi Jawa-Hindu ke Jawa-Islam. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ketika awal Islam masuk di Indonesia, Islam mengalami akulturasi dengan agama Hindu dalam hal seni bangunan. Hal tersebut juga terlihat pada tata kota di Indramayu yang menggunakan tata kota seperti umat Hindu pada waktu itu, dengan posisi istana berada di sebelah selatan alun-alun dan menghadap utara. Posisi masjid berada di sebelah barat, akan tetapi arah kiblatnya menghadap ke barat laut sesuai posisi Kabah dan Mekah. Bentuk masjid Baiturrahmah dulunya berbentuk denah persegi dengan penonjolan di salah satu sisi, beratap tumpang dua yang di atasnya terdapat mustaka sebagai pengganti lambang bulan bintang. Kini denah bentuk masjid menjadi persegi panjang, karena adanya peluasan ruangan, sedangkan bagian atap yang tadinya beratap tumpang dua menjadi tiga. Ragam hias pada Masjid Baiturrahmah terdapat pada mahkota tiang segidelapan, hiasan pada kayu blandar, mimbar, dan candrasengkala, di mana sebagian besar terdapat ukiran seperti lung-lungan yang berupa hiasan berbentuk sulur atau ragam hias bentuk tumpal. Ukiran tersebut berupa jenis tumbuhan merambat di mana terdapat daun, batang, dan bunga. Dalam candrasengkala juga terdapat sebuah kaligrafi berisikan tentang riwayat pemugaran masjid yang ditulis dalam bahasa Arab dengan menggunakan kaligrafi aliran riq’ah. Kata Kunci: Sejarah Perkembangan, Bentuk, Struktur, Ragam Hias, Arsitektur Masjid Baiturrahmah From the era of 15 to 16th c century, the construction of mosques in Java Island was in the transition of architecture design of Java-Hindu to Java-Islam. Therefore particular constructional design of mosques was found into the various design. Indramayu is one of coastal territorial districts in Java Island that has its relationship to the Islam movement in that era, in West Java. It can be identified from an ancient mosque in Indramayu. The mosque has its more than 100 year of ages. The name of mosque is Baiturrahmah. The name of the mosque was in some years ago, known as “Mesjid Dermayu or Indramayu Mosque”. The name of mosque was originally taken from the name of the city. Now, the mosque is still well settled even there has been its regularly reconstruction. Those re-constructional parts are in the mustaka, soko guru, ganjah mayangkara, etc. The research questions of this research were, how is the history, shape, structural, and the kind of Baiturrahmah Mosque in Indramayu. This research used the qualitative Methodology design, in an approach of literature, decomentation, observation, and interview. The research used Pijper theory (1984, Page 15) it is about the characteristics of mosque in Java Island and Dasuki’s theory (1977, pages 41-42) it is about ancient mosque in Java Island was in the transition of architecture design of Java-Hindu to Java-Islam. Based on that research design, the result found that in the first time when Islam came to Indonesia, Islam conducted cultural acculturation with Hindu in building arts. It can be simply identified from the planological design of the city of Indramayu. The planology design of the city has followed Hindu tradition, with the position of place in the south facing the north. The position of the mosque is in the west with the position of qiblat to northwest following the Kabah and Mekah. The mosque of Baiturrhamah was firstly designed in the square form square with its bulge. The roof part of the mosque has been designed in a flat double form entails the mustaka as the subtle of moon and star icon. Now, the form of the mosque has become rectangular in shape, while the roof has additionally changed to be three in flats. The architectural design of Baiturrahmah mosque such as in kayu blandar, mimbar, and candrasengkala are mostly containing the objects as lung-lungan as the decoration of sulur and tumpal in shape. The objects of the decoration is in the style as creeped with the leaves, steak and flowers. There is also calligraphy in Candrasengkala with its contain of the history of the reconstruction of the mosque in an Arabic text constructed in the calligraphy with the trend of Riq’ah calligraphy. The keys : The history of development, kind shapes, structures, architectural objects and architectural construction of Baiturrahmah mosque.

Item Type: Skripsi Tesis Atau Disertasi (S1)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Sejarah Perkembangan, Bentuk, Struktur, Ragam Hias, Arsitektur Masjid Baiturrahmah
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > B Philosophy (General)
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BP Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc
N Fine Arts > N Visual arts (General) For photography, see TR
N Fine Arts > NK Decorative arts Applied arts Decoration and ornament
Divisions: Fakultas Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni > Jurusan Pendidikan Seni Rupa
Depositing User: DAM STAF Editor
Date Deposited: 25 Sep 2014 03:05
Last Modified: 25 Sep 2014 03:05
URI: http://repository.upi.edu/id/eprint/11456

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