Implikasi Konsep Insân Kâmil Dalam Pendidikan Umum Di Pondok Sufi Pomosda

Rahmat, Munawar (2010) Implikasi Konsep Insân Kâmil Dalam Pendidikan Umum Di Pondok Sufi Pomosda. S3 thesis, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

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Official URL: http://repository.upi.edu

Abstract

Pendidikan merupakan proses memanusiakan-manusia. Insân kâmil (manusia sempurna) merupakan model manusia ideal yang dikehendaki oleh Islam. Studi terdahulu sudah banyak yang mengungkap konsep ini, tapi lebih merupakan sebuah wacana yang sulit diimplikasikan ke dalam pendidikan. Dengan menggunakan paradigma kualitatif, disertasi ini menggali konsep insân kâmil perspektif Ilmu Syaththariah di Pondok Sufi POMOSDA dan implikasinya terhadap pendidikan umum. Adapun pendekatan yang digunakan adalah studi kasus, grounded theory, social hermeuneutic, dan metode tafsir (Tafsir Wasithah dan Al-Qarafi), dengan responden KH Muhammad Munawwar Afandi, Guru Wasithah Syaththariah ke-48 sebagai elite respondent. Studi ini menemukan dua hal: Pertama, Guru Wasithah mengharuskan manusia bersifat jabbari-aktif, yakni harus selalu bergantung kepada Tuhan dan pasrah bongkokan kepada Guru Wasithah, bagai malaikat muqorrobûn kal mayyiti baena yadil ghosili (seperti mayat yang rela disucikan oleh orang yang berhak memandikannya), yakni selalu bersungguh-sungguh menjalankan Dawuh Guru. Insân kâmil adalah hamba Allah yang telah ditarik oleh fadlol (karunia) dan rahmatNya, karena kesungguhannya dalam menjalankan Islam kâffâh, yakni menggabungkan syare’at dan hakekat dengan bimbingan Guru Wasithah hingga mencapai fana` Dzat. Pada hirarki tujuh tangga nafsu, insân kâmil merupakan hamba Allah yang telah mencapai tangga nafsu tertinggi (nafsu kamilah) sebagai buah dari kesungguhannya dalam menjalankan Dawuh Guru. Kedua, proses untuk mencapai martabat insân kâmil melalui enam tahapan, yakni: meminta di-bai’at atau di-talqin zikir kepada Guru, setia dengan sumpah dan janji, menjalankan lakon (ibadah) dan pitukon (amal sosial) sesuai Dawuh Guru (disertai hati, roh, dan rasa yang selalu mengingat-ingat Zat Tuhan Yang Al-Ghaib), menjalankan 10 dasar agama (taubat, zuhud, `uzlah, qona`ah, sabar, tawakkal `alallah, mulazimatu dzikr, tawajjuh ilallahi bilkulliyati, muroqobah, dan ridlo), menghindari empat bencana amal bagai api yang memakan habis kayu kering (takabbur, ujub, riya, dan sum`ah), dan jihad akbar (melalui proses takholli, tahalli, dan tajalli). Kata kunci: Ilmu Syaththariah, Guru Wasithah, Zat Tuhan Yang Al-Ghaib, haqîqotul insân, Martabat Tujuh, tujuh tangga nafsu, insân kâmil, manusia sesat, pendidikan umum Education is the process of humanizing human. Insân kâmil (the perfect human) is the ideal human model desired by Islam. Previous studies have explored much about the concept of insân kâmil; these studies, however, tend to view the concept as a discourse that is difficult to implement in education. This dissertation has explored the concept of insân kâmil in the perspective of Syaththariah Sufism, along with its implications for general education. The study is qualitative in nature, adopting case study, grounded theory, social hermeuneutics, and Qur`anic hermeneutics as its approaches and KH Muhammad Munawwar Affandi, who is the 48th Wasithah (duty of God) of Syaththariah Sufism, being the elite respondent. This study has yielded the following: first, Wasithah requires that humans be active determinists, i.e. they must always depend on God and be willing to surrender to Wasithah and whole heartedly obey his every instruction, just like the angels who are always obedient to God. Insân kâmil refers to human beings who have been blessed with Grace and Mercy of God because of their total submission to Islam, i.e. incorporating syare`at and hakekat under the supervision of Wasithah. In the hierarchy of the seven steps of lust, insân kâmil have reached the highest one (perfect lust) due to their sincerity in carrying out instructions from Wasithah. Second, the process of reaching insân kâmil involves six stages, namely: asking for initiation; being faithful to the oath and pledge; performing worship and social charity as instructed by Wasithah (with their hearts, spirits, and senses always remembering The Unseen); implementing the 10 foundations of Islam (taubat, zuhud, `uzlah, qona`ah, sabar, tawakkal `alallah, mulazimatu dzikr, tawajjuh ilallahi bilkulliyati, muroqobah, and ridlo); avoiding the four charity-related disasters, which is associated with fire that burns up dry wood (being arrogant or takabur, boastful or ujub, showing off charity or riya, and finding others’ weaknesses or sum’ah); and fighting their own lust (jihad akbar) through a process of emptying oneself (takholli), adorning self with an exemplary character (tahalli), and showing manifestation of God (tajalli). Keywords: Syaththariah Sufism, Wasithah, Unseen as a substance of God, human nature, The Seven Dignity, the seven steps of lust, Insân Kâmil, humans going astray, general education

Item Type: Skripsi Tesis Atau Disertasi (S3)
Additional Information: No Panggil D PU RAH i-2010
Uncontrolled Keywords: Syaththariah Sufism, Wasithah, Unseen as a substance of God, human nature, The Seven Dignity, the seven steps of lust, Insân Kâmil, humans going astray, general education
Subjects: L Education > L Education (General)
Divisions: Sekolah Pasca Sarjana > Pendidikan Umum/Nilai S-3
Depositing User: Staf Koordinator 3
Date Deposited: 24 Jun 2014 01:59
Last Modified: 24 Jun 2014 01:59
URI: http://repository.upi.edu/id/eprint/7999

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