PENGUATAN KEPEMERINTAHAN DAERAH YANG BAIK MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN BUDAYA DEMOKRASI: Studi Tentang Good governance Pada Kinerja Aparatur dan Peran Civil Society Dalam Konteks Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan di Pemda Provinsi Maluku dan Pemda Kota Ambon

Abdul, Jabar (2013) PENGUATAN KEPEMERINTAHAN DAERAH YANG BAIK MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN BUDAYA DEMOKRASI: Studi Tentang Good governance Pada Kinerja Aparatur dan Peran Civil Society Dalam Konteks Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan di Pemda Provinsi Maluku dan Pemda Kota Ambon. S3 thesis, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

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Abstract

Disertasi ini menyajikan data terkait temuan penelitian tentang good governance pada kinerja aparatur dan peran civil society dalam konteks pendidikan kewarganegaraan di pemda Provinsi Maluku dan pemda Kota Ambon. Masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah kesenjangan ekonomi dan instabilitas sosial keamanan yang sering terjadi, serta pengelolaan sumber daya daerah yang cenderung dominan ada pada pemda tanpa keterlibatan peran civil society. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode grounded theory. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara: 1) studi dokumentasi; 2) wawancara, dan; 3) observasi. Data dianalisis secara kualitatif melalui proses reduksi data, display/penyajian data, dan conclusion/verification. Teori yang digunakan di antaranya; teori birokrasi Weber yang menekankan efisiensi dan rasionalitas, teori pluralisme dan kelebihan beban kerja pemerintah dari Daniel Bell, Huntington, M. Crozier dkk, teori demokrasi deliberatif dari Jurgan Habermas yang menekankan keterbukaan ruang publik dan partisipasi warga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 1) kebijakan pendayagunaan aparatur melalui penataan kelembagaan, ketatalaksanaan, kepegawaian, pengawasan, akuntabilitas, dan perubahan mindset aparatur yang ditempuh pemda belum berjalan efektif bagi sebuah kepemerintahan daerah yang baik, sehingga perlu melecut kapabilitas dinamis aparatur untuk melahirkan kesalehan birokrasi; 2) kinerja aparatur dalam penerapan prinsip-prinsip good governance belum berjalan optimal, kerja sama dan sinergitas pemda dan civil society belum terbangun secara baik sehingga pengelolaan sumber daya daerah masih dominan ada pada pemda; 3) pengembangan budaya demokrasi pada kinerja aparatur belum berdampak nyata pada ukuran kinerja berkualitas yang dapat memberikan kepuasan pada masyarakat; 4) civil society ikut berperan dalam pengembangan budaya demokrasi namun masih lebih pada aspek formil organisatoris sementara gerakannya cenderung bersifat pragmatis dan tendensius; 5) civil society ikut berperan dalam mendorong pelaksanaan good governance, namun posisi tawarnya lemah karena tidak berdaya secara struktural dan paradigmatik; 6) strategi penguatan pemda dapat ditempuh melalui; reformasi birokrasi, energizing birokrasi, mengubah DNA sistem pemda, penataan kebijakan SDM, mengikis mental birokrasi priayi, mengembangkan superleadership dan self-leadership; menjadikan PKn sebagai wahana penguatan good governance. Hasil penelitian ini direkomendasikan kepada: 1) perangkat daerah, dan kelembagaan teknis daerah di pemda Provinsi Maluku dan pemda Kota Ambon agar mempertimbangkan hasil penelitian ini dalam perumusan kebijakan; 2) organisasi civil society di Kota Ambon Maluku agar melakukan reorientasi dan revitalisasi ideologi dan budaya gerakan; 3) peneliti lain untuk melakukan penelitian lebih lanjut seperti “pola pelibatan masyarakat dalam perumusan dan pelaksanaan kebijakan pembangunan daerah”. Kata kunci: good governance, budaya demokrasi, kinerja aparatur dan peran civil society. The dissertation presents the outcomes of research on good governance in state apparatus performance and civil society roles in the context of civic education in Maluku Provincial Government and Ambon Municipal government. The main issues of this research are economic gap and social instability and insecurity, and the management of regional resources that tends to be dominated by the regional government without involving civil society. The research employed qualitative approach with grounded theory method. Meanwhile, the data were collected through: (1) Documentary studies; (2) Interviews; and (3) Observations. The data were then processed and analysed qualitatively through the processes of data reduction, data display, conclusion and verification. The theories referenced are, among others, Weber’s theory of bureaucracy which emphasizes efficiency and rationality; the theories of the overloading of government and pluralism by Daniel Bell, Huntington, and M. Crozier et al.; the theory of deliberative democracy by Jurgen Habermas, stressing on public sphere openness and community participation. The outcomes of the research have shown: (1) The policies of state apparatus empowerment through the arrangement of the institution, management, personnel, control, accountability, and the change of state apparatus’ mindset formulated by the regional governments have not been effective for good regional governance; hence, the state apparatus' dynamic capabilities need to be encouraged in order to create good bureaucracy; 2) The state apparatus performance in implementing the principles of good governance has not been optimal; the same is true for the cooperation and synergy between the regional governments and civil society, which have not been well-established yet, resulting in the domination of the regional government over the management of regional resources; (3) The development of democratic culture in the area of state apparatus performance has not manifested on quality performance that could satisfy the community; (4) Civil society has actively participated in developing democratic culture, but the emphasis was still on formal aspects of the organizations, while its movements tended to be pragmatic and tendencious; (5) Civil society has actively participated in encouraging the conduct of good governance, but its bargaining position was weak because it was not empowered structurally and paradigmatically; (6) Strategies for reinforcing the regional government can be as follows: reforming bureaucracy, energizing bureaucracy, transforming the DNA system of the regional government, arranging policies on human resources, diminishing bureaucratic, aristocratic, and feudalistic cultures, establishing and promoting civic education as a medium of value transformations for the reinforcement of good governance. The outcomes of this research are addressed as recommendations for: (1) Regional officials and implementing agencies in Ambon Municipal Government and Maluku Provincial Government, which are expected to consider the outcomes of this research in policy formulations; (2) Civil society organizations in Ambon, Maluku, which are encouraged to reorient and revitalise their ideology and movement cultures; (3) Other researchers interested in further research, such as "The pattern of community involvement in the formulation and conduct of regional development policies". Keywords: Good governance, democratic culture, state apparatus performance and civil society roles.

Item Type: Skripsi Tesis Atau Disertasi (S3)
Subjects: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia > Sekolah Pasca Sarjana > Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan S-3
Divisions: Sekolah Pasca Sarjana > Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan S-3
Depositing User: DAM STAF Editor
Date Deposited: 29 Oct 2013 03:12
Last Modified: 29 Oct 2013 03:12
URI: http://repository.upi.edu/id/eprint/2627

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